The Economy Fuels Cyber Crime

According to the Internet Crime Complaint Center (IC3), cyber crime was up in 2008, and if the first few months of 2009 is anything to go by, this trend is not only continuing, it is accelerating.

As the country slides into recession, early indicators for 2009-February to March 2009-shows an additional 50% increase in reported Internet fraud complaints.

“These numbers are shocking, but given that the vast majority of incidents go unreported, the threat of identification theft is actually much more serious than even these figures would lead us to believe,” says Justin Yurek, President of ID Watchdog, Inc. Common wisdom says that only one cyber crime in seven-or about fifteen percent-is actually reported.

Internet fraud includes everything from bogus sales on auction sites such as eBay and classified sites like craigslist.com, to smaller scale version of the Ponzi scheme perpetrated by disgraced New York financier Bernard Madoff.

As an example, a scam recently surfaced via e-mails that masquerade as originating from the FBI and other federal agencies seeking the recipient’s bank account information in order to “help with illegal wire transfer investigations.” Sweet.

The Recession Impact

Many observers put the continued surge in cyber crime down to the recession, and for several reasons.

As reported by the TechArena Forum , McAfee for one, in their annual McAfee Virtual Criminology Report-which examines emerging global cyber security trends, with input from leading academics, criminal lawyers, law enforcement authorities and security experts across the world-identified the following challenges:

The Cyber Credit Crunch – The cyber criminal is now trying to cash in on consumer anxiety to profit from old-fashioned “get rich quick” scams.

Meaning, that there are now people who voluntarily sign up to add malicious code to their websites, lured by the promise of easy money. At the same time, desperate job seekers are being recruited as “money mules” to launder cybercriminal gains under the guise of “international sales representatives” or “shipping managers.”

In addition, with the economic downturn driving more people to the web to seek the best deals, opportunities for cybercriminals to attack are on the rise as people are more easily drawn in.

Governments are distracted – As governments grow more and more preoccupied with the economic downturn, their fight against cyber crime slides down their agenda, inviting more and more audacious individuals onto the cyber crime field.

The Cybercop Shortage – It is a known fact that police forces on the cyber crime front line often lack the specialist skills required to effectively fight these criminals.

Furthermore, the lack of dedicated and ongoing training, sufficient remuneration, or even a clear career path, is causing cyber crime specialists to be lured into the more lucrative private sector or even into underground economies.

Criminality Concealed – Eastern Europe, Russia and China have become key safe havens for cybercriminals while Brazil has become one of the fastest growing scapegoat countries for cybercrime. Traffic is often re-routed (and often via Brazil) as a decoy causing considerable misdirection in the origin of attacks.

Information Silo – While law enforcement is bound to physical national boundaries, cybercriminals are free to cooperate across borders.

Law enforcement communication between countries remains inconsistent and limited. Local issues and priorities take precedence over global efforts and international laws are being implemented with regional variations that impede the ability to negotiate jurisdiction and extradition between countries.

This is an environment that plays right into the hands of the cyber criminal, much to the frustration of cyber police.

Microsoft’s Take

As reported by RedOrbit Microsoft shares McAfee’s view that the global recession could prove to be a starting point for an influx of more cyber criminals seeking to use their computer skills to earn extra money.

“Today these (cyber) attacks are no longer about vandalism, they are about cash,” says Roger Halbheer, Microsoft’s chief security advisor for Europe, the Middle East and Africa.

“Cyber crime has gone from cool to cash. And this will definitely grow in the future,” he told AFP (Agence France-Presse) during a recent international conference on terrorism and cyber security in Spain. “At the moment we are still at the cool side. But I’m expecting it to move to the cash side.”

He then went on to add that it is, “one of the things that scare me about the economic downturn because I expect cyber crime to grow.”

Also, the current economic crisis is causing a large number of layoffs, many of them from tech firms, meaning that more and more computer experts will have a lot of time on their hands, but no money. Tempting.

Fixing any and all security issues in software, does not solve the problem for, “Unfortunately the bad guys don’t give up and go away. Instead they increasingly focus on crimes of deception that prey on human vulnerabilities rather than software vulnerabilities.”

A Law Enforcement Perspective

Lt. Rocky Costa, who until recently headed up the Southern California High Technology Task Force agrees. “In fact, law enforcement has always seen a rise in all sorts of theft crimes when the economy goes south. The crooks look to fraud as the best way to separate folks from their money. People are most vulnerable when money is tight and they are looking to save their homes, savings, retirements, and often, their families.

“They become easy prey to the con-artist who has no sense of right and wrong, but knows how to capitalize on human weaknesses. You see the con artist makes a living studying people and their behaviors. They know their success rate will increase as the economy tumbles and/or the recession climbs. Since a vast number of folks use technology daily, it is only natural to expect technology to be another weakness and another method for exploitation.

“Historically, the number of street robberies goes up, along with shoplifting, and burglaries as the money becomes scarcer. Although we have not yet seen these increases at the lab, we fully expect them. However, with the current economy, even government must begin to cut back. When they do, technology based crimes slide down the priority list in favor of these more visible types of theft.

“People need to stay vigilant in the face is despair, holding onto their values and good judgment will be the only way they will be able to fully protect what they have left, until we all see around the corner.”

A Call to Action

According to the RSA Press Release of Tuesday, April 21, 2009:

During the opening keynote at RSA Conference 2009 Art Coviello, President of RSA, The Security Division of EMC, cautioned that the global cyber-threat continues to escalate and online fraudsters are more organized, collaborative and effective than ever. He addressed major forces such as the economy and emerging technologies that are driving the information security industry to evolve and adapt-and how these forces provide an opportunity for “inventive collaboration” to effectively restructure the information infrastructure.

“To combat the cybercriminals requires far more purposeful collaboration on the part of the industry and a strong security ecosystem built around a common development process focused on risk,” said Coviello. “Today’s security technologies are applied as independent applications cluttering the information landscape and leaving perilous gaps of risk.”

Coviello cited three major forces driving the information security industry to evolve and adapt, including:

o the challenge posed by the criminal threat;
o the demand upon enterprises and governments to achieve unprecedented levels of productivity to restore value to the faltering economy; and
o the opportunity to rethink the approach to security based upon emerging technologies and trends such as virtualization, cloud computing and social networking.

According to Coviello, “We must embrace a common development process that allows us to create a more secure infrastructure today. Then with an eye on the future we can ensure that the new technical infrastructure is designed around that process, rather than forcing a process around a collection of technologies.

“We must develop a stronger and healthier ecosystem than the fraudsters and ensure the fluid and frictionless exchange of information on which our global economy depends. It’s not about changing the game; it’s about winning the game,” said Coviello.

Educating the Individual

However, it does not matter of safe our hardware and software becomes, if the individual citizen, desperate for money-and reaching for digital straws, as it were-believes that perhaps this Nigerian Prince really does exist and really does want to spit his $2 Million 50/50 if only he were to help him.

And by the same token, scouring the Internet for the best deal, and finding some that are (in fact) too good to be true, he may pounce on them, not only losing his money in the process, but also his credit card number and other private information.

The same holds true for many “work-at-home” opportunities that only require a small $300 payment for the material you will need to make “thousands a week from your kitchen.” You’ve seen them. Well, as often as not, you will not even receive the material, and by the time you’ve wised up, your card has been charged, your money gone.

The time to wise up is now.

Internet Commerce Made Safe

As we all know, at least during some of our more rational moments-the “too good to be true” deal is often precisely that. But that is not to say that there are no good deals out there. In fact, the Internet is probably the marketplace that to a large extent will pull the economy out of its slump, precisely because it is replete with good deals and true opportunities.

But how to tell the good from the bad?

According to the IC3, the best way to guard against Internet facilitated scams is to stay informed. Keeping informed of the latest scams on the Internet may enable Internet users to recognize and report these scams instead of losing money or their identity information in one of them. To learn about the latest scams, they recommend periodically checking the IC3, FBI, and the FTC websites for the latest updates.

Additionally, the IC3 and its partners have launched a public website, “www.lookstoogoodtobetrue.com,” which briefs the consumer about various consumer alerts, tips, and fraud trends. Pay it a visit. Make it a habit.

Also, when it comes to online auctions, and the potential of non-delivery of goods that you’ve paid for, the IC3 makes these specific recommendations:

o Make sure you are purchasing merchandise from a reputable source. As with auction fraud, check the reputation of the seller whenever possible, including the Better Business Bureau.
o Try to obtain a physical address rather than merely a post office box and a phone number. Also, call the seller to see if the number is correct and working.
o Send them an e-mail to see if they have an active e-mail address. Be cautious of sellers who use free e-mail services where a credit card was not required to open the account.
o Investigate other websites regarding this person/company. Do not judge a person/company by their fancy website; thoroughly check the person/company out.
o Be cautious when responding to special offers (especially through unsolicited e-mail).
o Be cautious when dealing with individuals/companies from outside your own country. Remember the laws of different countries might pose issues if a problem arises with your transaction.
o Inquire about returns and warranties on all items.
o The safest way to purchase items via the Internet is by credit card because you can often dispute the charges if something is wrong. Also, consider utilizing an escrow or alternate payment service after conducting thorough research on the escrow service.
o Make sure the website is secure when you electronically send your credit card numbers.

Bona Fide vs. Fraudulent Online Escrow Companies
If you have found a good online deal and are now ready to purchase, it would serve you very well to take IC3’s recommendation and engage an online escrow service.

The problem is that while there are several bona fide online escrow sites, they are nowhere near as many as there are fraudulent ones.

So, how can you be sure that the escrow company you’re considering using is in fact what it says it is?

You must research it. First, do a WHOIS search on the domain. This will show you how long the site has been up, where it is being hosted, how many times the site has been taken down. These are clues. If it smells fishy at all to you, go elsewhere.

Then Google the name of the escrow company to see what gives. This will lead you to forums and other articles. Study them well.

Then, when you have found a site that appears legitimate, travel the extra mile and take one of several additional steps:

o Firstly, while fraudulent sites can buy the necessary certificate to make it a secure site, they seldom do;
o Secondly, you can check at escrow-fraud.com to see if the site you have decided on is listed as a fraudulent site by them; they also maintain a list of bona fide sites;
o Thirdly, you can call the site’s customer service department to make sure they are based in the United States. If you have any doubts about that, ask them to call you back, and check the caller ID-if it is an international call, beware. Also, if the site does not have a customer service department, again, beware;
o Once you know that you’re talking to a U.S. based service department, ask any questions you can think of to ensure they are legitimate, such as which bank are they using for their escrow accounts, and who is their main contact at that bank (whom you can then call to verify that this online escrow company does in deed have an escrow account there);
o If the answer is a well-known American bank, and if the customer service rep can supply contact information at the bank, you are 99% there. Then, if you want to reach 100%, make that final call to the bank to rule out any vestige of doubt.

Now you have found an online escrow company you can trust; register with them and enjoy your purchase.

Here’s to good and safe Internet deals.

Criminal Justice Degree Jobs

Career planning should be an important part of every person’s life. If you are considering getting a degree in criminal justice or if you already have one, then you should definitely look at the most popular criminal justice degree jobs. This will allow you to choose the one that is suitable for you, given your qualifications, interests, needs and requirements.

The police or sheriff’s patrol officer jobs are among the top 10 most popular jobs for graduates. You can secure such a position with a bachelor’s degree or with an associate’s degree. The annual median salary for such a position is a little over $58,000.

Such criminal justice degree jobs are popular among graduates for a number of reasons. Firstly, it is easy to find vacancies, as the demand for patrol officers is growing. More importantly, higher positions in the government law enforcement institutions usually have work experience requirements as well as educational ones. For instance, to get a job in the FBI, which is also a popular option for those with a degree in this discipline, you need to have bachelor’s degree or higher as well as at least three years or work experience.

The detective and criminal investigator jobs are also among the most popular for graduates. The junior positions are readily available to those with no prior work experience. Still, it should be pointed out that as the methods for investigation become more scientific and technologically advanced, most institutions require applicants to have taken extensive courses in forensics and/or science as well. The popularity of these criminal justice degree jobs is due to popular TV series as well as to the high median salary, which is over $80,000 a year.

A growing number of graduates choose to work as correction officers, probation officers and correctional treatment specialists. Even though the median annual salary is not particularly high, ranging from $46,000 to $57,000, the demand for professionals in these sectors is constantly increasing. This is the main reason why a lot of graduates get such positions. They can be a good basis for a promising career in law enforcement.

Despite the common misconception, some of the most popular criminal justice degree jobs are in the private sector. Many graduates find employment as loss prevention agents in retail stores and other commercial settings. The work involves preventing and investigating theft. A loss prevention agent can earn a little over $28,000, but career advancement opportunities are readily available. A loss prevention manager can earn over $46,000 a year.

A large number of graduates prefer to work in an environment which is much safer than the work environment of police patrol officers and investigators. You can readily choose to work as a paralegal, a legal assistant or a legal secretary. Such positions are available in both the government sector and the private sector. At such a position, you can earn around $53,000 a year and even more after some years of experience on the job.

There are many different types of criminal justice degree jobs to select from. All you have to do is to compare them to make the right choice.

Defining Identity Theft

With modern technology, identity theft has become easier to commit by the minute. Identity theft refers to when someone uses someone else’s personal identifying information such as their name, social security number, checking routing number, or their credit card number, without their consent with the intention to commit fraud or any other crime.

According to the Federal Trade Commission (FTC), approximately 9 million Americans have their identities stolen each year. Often times the victim is not aware they are the victim of identity theft until months or years afterwards, when their credit and their reputation have already been damaged.

Identity theft thieves use other people’s identifying information to commit a broad range of crimes. They may use the information to rent an apartment, obtain a credit card or checking account, or establish a cell phone or cable account in the victim’s name. The victim doesn’t usually find out they have been a victim of identity theft until it’s too late, or until they have been contacted by a creditor.

Identity theft begins when the thief acquires personal identifying information such as another person’s social security number, driver’s license number, or credit card. It doesn’t matter if the victim is dead or alive; it’s still a criminal offense and is prosecuted to the full extent of the law when the perpetrator is caught. Personal information can be illegally acquired in a variety of ways including:

Skimming – This occurs when a special devise is used to steal a credit or debit card number when processing the person’s card.

Changing the Victim’s Address – The person changes the victim’s address by mailing in a change of address form. As a result, the billing statements are diverted to another location.

Theft – This is the oldest type of theft in the book. This refers to stealing the victim’s purse, or wallet, pre-approved credit card offers, new checks or other tax information.

Dumpster Diving – This refers to rummaging through someone’s trash to find bills, bank statements, voided checks etc. with identifying information on them.

Phishing – The thieves pretend to be a financial institution such as the victim’s bank, or a credit card company and send spam to try and get the person to reveal their social security number or bank account information etc.

Pretexting – The thief uses false pretenses to obtain personal information from a bank, credit card company, telephone company and other sources.

Identity theft is taking very seriously in all fifty states. In Washington, there are two levels of identity theft. How they are prosecuted depends upon value of the credit, money, goods, or services that were taken. If the value of the goods or services etc. obtained through someone else’s identity were valued more than $1500, it is prosecuted as a Class B felony. For any goods or services obtained below the value of $1500, it is prosecuted as a Class C felony and the penalties range from up to 10 years imprisonment, a fine up to $20,000, or both. If you have been charged with identity theft, it’s critical to enlist the services of an aggressive defense attorney as early as possible. An attorney will be able to investigate every aspect of your case and negotiate with the prosecutor, the judge, or jury on your behalf when it comes to sentencing.

We Think, Therefore We Commit Crimes

People think, therefore they commit actions of choice. Criminals think, therefore they commit crimes. This is not a very complicated notion, or is it a new concept. What becomes complicated are the processes and actions that follow, coupled with academic attempts to explain the subsequent acts. In very broad general terms, criminal behavior can be formatted and analyzed from the assessment of crime scene, but not to a point of perfection. Assessment, profiling or whatever you want to call it, is no more and no less just another tool for law enforcement. Just like lifting fingerprints, interviewing witnesses, or gathering other physical evidence, criminal behavior assessment is basically guesswork. Human behavior is not subject to strict codification or precise parameters by which exact measures can be deduced. Probabilities can be asserted along a continuum, whereby we can understand the thinking processes of criminals to the junction of potential prediction, but not absolute prediction. This is predicated, of course, on the assumption that certain elements exist within the known environment by which such predictions can be based. It is frequently suggested that criminals form pre-crime thoughts in an effort to individually and collectively carry out their criminal behavior intentions. Interdicting at this point in time would be unique and advantageous from a law enforcement perspective.

Motivations or personal agendas so to speak, set the stage for intentional selection for results that are either good or evil. Evil is the darkness of the human mind that fosters all manner of opposition to the positive and productive aspects of life. It is life negation in contrast to life affirmation. Conscious or subconscious thoughts take relevance and manifest themselves into real levels of expression with a significant probability of repetition. Thinking processes are the foundation of potential criminal behavior. People can be inspired by their thoughts for doing both good and evil. The pursuit of certain thoughts is grounds for criminal activity. People are a dichotomous expression of being on the one hand selfish, self-indulgent and self-centered in nature, yet also law-abiding, decent and considerate on the other. From an investigative standpoint, one can never underestimate the depravity of human beings. Human nature is not to be trusted to an absolute sense in all situations, under all varieties of conditions. Yet, everyone is still ultimately accountable and responsible for his or her actions, regardless of station or position in a given socio-economic context. Of course, some would use their status to place themselves above the lawful necessity of accountability and responsibility. And, as a result of one thinking that he or she can make choices contrary to accepted legal policy or social acceptance, criminal behavior becomes probable.

Criminal actions are probable due to personal decision-making. Such actions devolve toward personal choices associated with power and control issues. Criminals basically commit crimes because that is what they want to do. A person’s code of morality is influenced by philosophical fallacies of belief. This affects the thinking process. People basically do stupid things. The depravity of behavior is most likely unfathomable to most people. Criminals think before they act. The thoughts are there long before the event takes place. Thinking becomes the basis to rationalize the behavior and ultimately blame the behavior on someone or something else. So, crime analysis is probably more descriptive of the actions.

The formulation of criminal plans (thinking processes) begins with the thought of doing the acts upon which one desires. Plans to do harm are not sudden and impulsive. They occur over a distinct period of time in the brain, or “mind”, of the thinker. And, there is a high probability that since we are biologically oriented individual, our sexual drives and desires may influence our decision-making (choice we make) in terms of the crimes we commit and additions we create.

The thought processes emerge in some behavioral aspect, such as physically, verbally, and nonverbally, as well as symbolic behavior. Outward behavior is indicative of the inner thoughts of the person. Interpersonal communication is one of the keys to dealing with aspects of criminal behavior. People in general use various forms of communication to suggest their feelings, value system, lifestyle, attitude and thoughts. From tattoos to bumper stickers, to physical gestures and slogans, people, and in particular criminals, reveal indications of one sort or another as to their inclinations. Physical being is an expression of presence and that presence translates into wants and presumed needs. Whether by word, symbol or deed, the inner thoughts surface and become the outer actions of mind over matter so to speak. And, sometimes these outer actions become anti-social in nature. There is a deliberate desire to do the thing contemplated, whether the thoughts are short-term or long-term in transformation. Thinking is doing, acting, believing and experiencing. Various acts of criminal behavior range from the simple to the complex, depending on the linkage between thought and action, as well as the sophistication of the criminal. For instance, the amount of physical expression required for a particular act of deviance is related to the ability, skill and desire of the criminal. Opportunity is a given factor. From thought to action, the criminal is always looking for opportunistic forms of expression. Desire, opportunity and ability mix together in order that the desired action is executed. The “evil”, as a concept of human behavior, concerns the malevolent things that people do to others. It reflects the inner composition of the human being. The connectivity evolves around the compendium of crime analysis and criminal behavior assessment.

It is associated with the ideation of preemptive actions toward the outer world, while one struggles with the inner world. Whether making bombs and blowing up buildings, robbing banks and raping people, the thinking facilitates the transformation into the criminal behavior. Evil opposes life and seeks to kill or otherwise destroy life. Acting out the actions is indicative of the internal “warfare” within the imperfect structure of human nature. As such, “evil” is human nature, and reflects the various personifications and proclivities down through history. No matter what the reason or suggested excuse, aberrant behavior begins with the individuals and then extends outward into the community of people. Whether minor or major, everyone commits some act of deviance against another. Such acts may be symbolic, verbally expressive or physical in actuality. The behavior may be overt or covert depending on the individual tendencies and preferences. Evil is characteristic of the state of human beings and the nature of their ongoing quest to fulfill selfish endeavors. This means others must suffer the consequences of what criminals do. Criminal activities extend from the human passion for adverse self-indulgent needs.

The transmutation of the thought processes are continually structured around personal intentions, some evil and some good. Compulsion to action generally reflects aspects of the personality, which typically favor the inclination to leave a “signature” upon one’s behavior. As such, the various patterns of behavior are built upon a foundation of prior thought and consideration. Regardless of the socio-economic circumstances, criminals postulate their criminal intentions through their own framework of ideation. Committing acts of evil are from within the person and subsequently carried out in acts of violence, theft, cheating, and a host of deceptive behaviors.

Analysis and assessment are essential in developing crime prevention and interdiction efforts to prevent or identifying criminal actions. All human beings are potentially evil (i.e. prone to criminal behavior) and have the capacity for the commission of hideous acts of aberrant behavior. The only difference between the so called “law abiding citizen” and the criminal, is the “law abiding citizen” controls their criminal inclination. When we so often speak of “what a nice person he was”, or “she wouldn’t hurt anyone”, how do we really know? What scale of perception do we use to assess the inner workings of person’s mind, which we can see or measure by normal means. How do we really know who a person is by looking from the outside?

Since there are at least two versions of every person’s personality and behavior extensions, one private and one public, what do we really know about the people? For that matter, it is even more complex to suggest we know something about people we don’t know. Analysis, study and assessment are essential in laying the foundation for more definitive answers. Crime prevention through proactive intervention strategies is the main objective of this focus. By attempting to identify the basic ingredients in criminal activity and behavior, the mission is to interdict where possible, as well as identify and apprehend the criminal to every extent feasible. Law enforcement personnel want to stop the criminal before he or she commits the crime. If that fails, then the law enforcement practitioners want to solve the case in the most expedient manner possible.

Listening to convicted criminals serving time in facilities may not be the most efficient way to go about developing proactive strategies for crime prevention purposes. In most cases, criminals will tell you whatever you want to hear in order to satisfy their self-serving needs. For this reason, criminal behavior studies may be significantly flawed due to the deception and manipulation that most criminals act out on a regular basis. And, given the gullible and often na├»ve nature of many researchers, the problem of data reliability is even more seriously affected. One must ponder the overall validity of information obtained from people who spend their lives deceiving others, making up their own rules and scapegoating at every opportunity. Self-serving, clever and deceptive, criminals will seek to justify every aspect of their behavior. Their actions will be rationalized to the extent necessary to shift focus from them to someone else. Criminals are very good at transferring blame from themselves to something or someone else. They typically will assert that they are the victims and the real victim is actually the cause of the criminal’s suffering. Their thinking processes should be of more interest than their environment, personal history or socio-economic surroundings.

Criminal Justice Schools

The demand for law enforcement offices and detectives is projected to increase by 10% in the coming eight years and, in turn, salaries are expected to increase as well. These are valid reasons for pursuing higher education that can guarantee you a well paid job in this government sector. All you have to do is to select between the different types of criminal justice schools. This guide will help you with this.

You can study this discipline in a community college, a career college or a vocational school to earn an associate’s degree in it. The training usually lasts 2 years during which you learn the fundamentals of criminal justice. You will study all of the main subjects of this discipline such as criminology, psychology, law, social studies and political science. Individuals with an associate’s degree in this discipline from such criminal justice schools can find well-paid jobs as police officers and sheriffs. The average annual salary of a person with such a degree working in the criminal justice system is around $48,000.

Schools, such as liberal arts colleges and universities, also offer this discipline. These schools offer bachelor’s degree programs and master’s degree programs. It is true that such training is longer and costlier. However, you will rip greater benefits from it. Individuals with a bachelor’s degree in this discipline can find jobs as detectives, deputy sheriffs, wardens and even as Secret Service agents. The average salary you can expect to earn with such a degree is around $67,000 a year.

If you have both master’s degree and bachelor’s degree in this discipline, you will have the opportunity to find a job even at the FBI. The annual job income of individuals with a master’s degree can reach $100,000, depending on the position they are taking.

All criminal justice schools offer traditional programs. The classes take place on campus during the day. However, since many people working in the criminal justice system want to advance in their profession, the number of more flexible programs has increased considerably. It is now possible for trainees to sign up for evening classes or for weekend classes. Such a program will allow you to go to work during the day and to keep your current income to support your family as well as your education.

Now you can enroll in an online program as well. You can earn an associate’s degree, bachelor’s degree or master’s degree online through one of the schools offering such programs. It should be pointed out that even though some of educational institutions offering such courses are operating entirely online, there are also traditional colleges and universities that offer such a training option to their students. Signing up for an online program gives you greater flexibility. You will be able to study when you want and for how long you want. At the same time, you will have access to instructors as well as to learning resources.

You can readily choose between the different types of justice schools. Consider all of the pros and cons for each option.