The Fight Against Computer Crime

Computer technology has attracted its fair share of criminal activities from those looking to exploit and capitalise on people’s reliance on the computer to run their daily lives. After all, author Jolly John singled Singapore out for being ‘the most network-ready country’, signifying both our dependence on new-age technology and the capabilities of the talent we have. However, there are dire consequences to be dealt with should the intentions of those with the ability to manipulate the systems deviate to malice.

In their efforts to safeguard against computer crime, the Singapore Government has set up various measures through a multi-pronged approach. The first step is to keep up governing laws with the fast changing developments of technology and the opportunities for dismeanour it presents by passing new legislation. Singapore passed the Computer Misuse Act in 1993, which has since been amended four times.

The Computer Misuse Act punishes perpetrators of computer crime, rather than cyber crime. Computer crime refers to crimes against a computer through acts that attack a computer system. The Act covers unauthorised access to a computer, or computer material without authorisation, modifying the contents of a computer without authorisation, obtaining or intercepting any computer service or function, interfering with or obstructing the lawful use of a computer, impeding or preventing access to or impairing the usefulness or effectiveness of any computer program or data, or disclosing a password, access code, or other means of gaining access to a program or data. To take just the first example, any person who uses a computer to secure access to another computer without authorization shall be guilty of an offence.

On the other hand, the existing Penal Code governs cyber crime, which is traditional crime like fraud, theft or extortion abetted through the computer. As opposed to carrying out crime against a computer, perpetrators carry out their illegal acts through the computer.

Through the Computer Misuse Act, the law punishes and deters computer criminals by meting out harsh penalties including imprisonment and fines. Crimes targeting the bedrock of our nation’s critical industries like banking and finance, communications or transportation and public services warrants the harshest punishment – a fine up to $100,000 and/or imprisonment up to 20 years. It is also noteworthy that a Court can order compensation to be paid by the offender for any damage that is caused, and such compensation which is ordered does not prevent or restrict a civil claim for damages which exceeds the compensation amount.

The next step it has taken is to set up agencies that ensure the enforcement of these laws. These specialised agencies include the Singapore Computer Emergency Response Team, Computer Crimes Branch of the Criminal Investigation Department (CID) and Computer Forensics Branch of the Singapore Police.

Operated by professionally-trained tech experts, they can exercise their power with extra-territorial jurisdiction. They are trained in all aspects of computer investigation, one of which is the emerging field of computer forensics. This intricate process of investigation enables the retrieval of consequential data from computers, computer networks, data storage media and related equipment that may contain evidence which can be presented in court. They first analyse the data and meticulously document and preserve the evidence to be presented before court. This operation requires highly trained professionals as it involves delicate procedures where a single wrong move can destroy or modify the evidence.

If one suspects a breach but don’t want to bring it directly to the authorities, there is the option of approaching private forensic investigators like Adroit Data Recovery Centre (ADRC). Due to the increase in violations of the Computer Misuse Act, ADRC has set up a forensic investigation department to deal with the influx of such investigative requests.

With more than 10 years of experience in the data recovery market, ADRC is well equipped with certified computer forensic experts who are capable of securing and documenting digital evidence with full audit trail suitable for court submission and performing data recovery under all adverse situations. They also have their own class 100 clean laboratory. Without having to move evidence around, this minimizes the risk of evidence being contaminated.
Computer users should also adopt preventive measures to safeguard their computers against computer crime, which is a very real threat that has the potential to be even more damaging given our reliance on computers these days.
Adroit Data Recovery Centre (ADRC) Pte Ltd is South East Asia’s leading data recovery centre equipped with the first Class 100 clean laboratory in Singapore. It has an un-paralleled capability and the setup to acquire and collect the digital evidence from all kinds of working or damaged media while observing the strictest process of computer forensic investigation.

The team of qualified forensic experts is able to provide court-ready reporting of digital evidence for civil and criminal litigation through the installation of rigorous forensic methodologies in order to identify, acquire, preserve, analyze and document digital data (electronically stored information) for use as evidence in court or other legal or administrative proceedings.

Selecting a Criminal Defense Lawyer

In basketball, they say that a good defense is the best offense. The same goes when you have to go to trial because your life is on the line and the only way to prevent yourself from going to jail is by selecting a criminal defense lawyer who will be able to represent you when the evidence is presented.

Criminal defense lawyers are a special breed of individuals because they specialize in criminal law. Some of these people represent those who are guilty and will do everything in their power to make sure their client does not go to jail.

But how do you select a criminal defense lawyer? For that, you have to find someone who specializes in this field. If you don’t know any, ask your friends or family for help.

When you see them for the first time, this is not a social call but business. You should ask them straight out how long has he or she practiced criminal law, the number of cases that went to trial and how many times have they won.

Do a background check on the criminal defense lawyer. Find out if they belong to any legal organizations like the County or State Bar Associations. If this person is a member of the National Association of Criminal Defense Lawyers, then chances are you are already in good hands.

But since this is not enough, find out if they will have the time to work on your case because you could lose it if they are not able to provide a good defense.

You should also find out how much they charge for their legal fees and if they will be the one who will personally handle your case. If they are asking you for a large sum of money up front, leave the office and find someone else right away.

If you find the rate reasonable and feel comfortable talking to this person, then by all means hire this individual to be your criminal defense attorney.

Now discuss your case and then follow whatever instructions are given. This person should be able to explain to you how things will go and what they will do.

The ideal criminal defense lawyer is the public defender because this is what they do day in and day out. Although they usually get a bad rap, they are very experienced when it comes to going to court which is why they are often used as consultants by private attorneys. Some have even left and established their own firms specializing in criminal law.

Will this guarantee that you will win your day in court? Of course not. Nobody can guarantee that even if you can afford hiring a very rich attorney.

This all boils down to how well this person will be able to cast doubt on the evidence used by the prosecution because you will only get a guilty verdict if they can prove beyond reasonable doubt that you are indeed responsible for the crime.

Selecting a criminal defense lawyer is crucial because not be able to get a good defense will likely get you a guilty verdict. You can prevent that form happening since you are given time to look for one before you are arraigned and asked how do you plead in front of the judge.

Find a Federal Criminal Defense Lawyer – How to Make the Right Choice

When you are either investigated for a federal crime or charged with a federal crime, you need a lawyer that understands federal criminal law. Not all criminal lawyers are prepared to defend you in a federal criminal case. The United States Attorney only pursues the most serious crimes, such as drug crimes, sex crimes, interstate fraud, kidnapping murder, RICO, and gun crimes. In addition, the federal sentencing guidelines are much harsher than most state sentencing guidelines. There is no parole in the federal system. Although there is time off for good behavior, it is not substantial and you can expect to serve virtually your entire sentence. This is why it is critical that you hire a federal criminal defense lawyer who knows the federal criminal system.

When you hire a qualified federal criminal defense lawyer, there are several things that he should do immediately. First, he should determine the progress of the case. If you are under investigation and have not been charged yet, then it is still possible to avoid a criminal charge. If you have been charged, your lawyer should be prepared to start the case immediately and begin discovery.

The second, and probably the most important step, for a qualified lawyer is to determine the possible sentence. This is more than just looking at the statute. A qualified lawyer will also look at your criminal history and determine whether there are any mitigating factors that could shorten a possible sentence or any aggravating factors that could increase your sentence. This is absolutely critical, because it is the cornerstone of an effective federal criminal defense. In order to create an effective case strategy, your lawyer must be able to predict where you will fall in the federal sentencing guidelines. This is because the US Attorney’s Office has a very high win rate at trial. Your lawyer should base the case strategies against the risks you face in the case. If you lawyer understands the federal sentencing guidelines, then he can tell you the pros and cons of various strategies measured against the risks in the case.

Third, do not pick a lawyer that is afraid to go to trial, but you also don’t want a lawyer who claims to always go to trial. A lawyer who is afraid to go to trial will not be able to stand up for your and protect your rights, which is exactly what you want a lawyer from a lawyer in a federal criminal case.  A lawyer who says he always goes to trial is putting you at risk, particularly if you are looking at a high end sentence under the federal guidelines.  The bottom line is that you want a lawyer who can either get you a dramatic sentence reduction or who can fight for you in front of the judge and jury. If a lawyer cannot do both things for you, then that lawyer is putting you at risk of doing much more time in federal prison that you have to do.

Fourth and finally, pick a lawyer that you can work with for several months or years. Federal criminal cases can last a very long time. If you pick a lawyer that you do not trust or who you cannot work with, it could hurt your case. If you decide to change lawyers, you will most likely have to get the court’s permission. When the court gives you permission, your new lawyer has to get up to speed on your case quickly and be ready to respond to the prosecution almost immediately. Make sure you make a good choice the first time you hire a lawyer, and then stick with that lawyer. The other part of this is that you do not want to shop for a lawyer based on price. You should be cautious about a lawyer who offers a cut rate, because that lawyer may never intend to go to trial or may not be qualified enough to command the usual rate for federal criminal defense lawyers. Your future is riding on your lawyer, now is not the time to skimp.

Right now, you need to do whatever it takes to get the best possible  federal criminal defense lawyer. It is stressful when you are under a federal investigation or have been charged with a federal crime, but a qualified federal criminal defense lawyer can help. Your lawyer can take some of that stress off of you, he can tell you what your options are, he can explain the risks, and he can fight for you every step of the way.

Criminal Justice Scholarships

One of the most vital considerations at the time of choosing a law school is to check whether it is recognized or not. Degrees from accredited schools are generally acknowledged and recognized throughout the country. People can get degrees in criminal justice from both traditional schools as well as online schools. Moreover, if people are already working in the field of criminal justice, an online degree could always be a better option. Additionally, most online criminal justice programs allow people to take credit for their work experience, or any kind of training that they have gone through.

A degree in criminal justice can open up different careers for people at the local, state, or federal government level as well as in the private sector. Students who have a master’s or a PhD degree in criminal justice also have an option of teaching jobs in various colleges and universities.

College fees are rising every academic year, and unless students are well off to support their education, it can be hard to secure enough funds to finance their education. The motivating aspect is that even an average student, can manage to win a scholarship to enroll themselves in criminal justice programs. Many scholarships are generally available for all, as opposed to the ones that are designed to honor some manner of achievement. The only barrier is the number of scholarships available. Students can also search for scholarships online, which is considered to be the best quick and simple way to find them. Scholarships generally are awarded to recognize qualities of personal integrity, good moral temperament, citizenship, academic distinction, and critical thinking skills.

There are online criminal justices programs available, which are usually in a module format to give assignments. This means that students are able to sign in on their own timetable, complete an assignment and move on to the next assignment at their own pace. In most online criminal justice programs, there are also online conversations with professors. This enables the students to connect in effective classroom discussions, about the topics covered in class and have any questions answered.

Understanding Criminal Defense Lawyer Consultation Fees

There are times when you need to get a criminal defense lawyer in Nebraska and it helps to know that these lawyers offer free initial consultation. Their legal fees are flat. For instance, if you are facing misdemeanor criminal lawsuits, it can cost you around $1,500 to $5,000 for defense. DUI cases will usually charge higher and can cost you $2,500 to $10,000. When you are facing felony cases because of a violation in the criminal law, the fees involved are much higher and can reach $25,000! But that’s not the end of it because the federal or state court fees tend to be higher as well.

When you meet with the lawyer, you should provide your criminal history so that the criminal defense lawyer can assess your case. Facts on the case will be reviewed. The defenses available will also be identified so that the legal issues can be better addressed. Your lawyer can help you out by assessing the situation and you will be told frankly if the case is hard or easy to resolve. Meeting with the lawyer is the best way to determine if you feel comfortable with him or her. Any problem with the violation of a criminal law will only be resolved with the help of a qualified Nebraska lawyer.

A Nebraska criminal defense lawyer should never make promises. You will only be presented with facts but nothing more. So if a certain lawyer promises to win your case and pressures you to hire him/her, take it as a red flag and shy away. There are still many reputable and ethical lawyers out there that can help you with your problem. Once you hire a lawyer, you will be educated of your case standing and the criminal law that you’ve violated. You will need to pay 25% to 50% of the fee and this will serve as down payment.

The criminal case will not end with the hiring of a criminal defense lawyer. In fact, there are still other expenses that you need to attend to. This will include witness fees, depositions, process servers, transcripts, records copies, deposition rooms, expert witnesses, and government documents. These things are billed to YOU, the client and it’s different from the legal fees. You should be aware of these expenses so that you can already calculate if you can afford to pay for them. Going to court is expensive and you need to know a great deal of the criminal law to avoid violating them in the future.

What are the things that you should know about criminal defense in Nebraska? Among the situations where you’ve violated the criminal law are burglaries, drug possession, felony offense, juvenile, marijuana use, misdemeanor, state crimes, guns, violent crimes, and many others. Lawyer consultation is very important because there is no escape once you’ve violated the law. Only a defense lawyer can help you in this kind of situation. You can use the internet to search for qualified and reputable lawyers in your state or country. Meet with several lawyers now and pick the best one.